…and he recalled that the Magdelena, father of waters, one of the great rivers of the world, was only an illusion of memory’
Gabriel Garcia Marquez ‘Love in a time of cholera’
Probably the most embarrassing experience I will never remember
My first personal experience of a significant memory lapse took place when as a medical student I took part in a study of oral Midazolam. I didn’t feel any different for a few hours after taking the drug and decided that I would make my own way home. An hour later I started to feel very sleepy, and everything for a few hours after that became a blur, a black hole in my memory. I was later told that I had walked into a packed meeting 20 minutes late, sat down in the front row beside the speaker’s wife and had promptly fallen asleep for the rest of the meeting! No matter how hard I tried, I could not piece together one thing the speaker had said or indeed how I had made my way home. Even though this was a trivial event, it was strangely frustrating and my mind kept churning the events over and over for weeks to try and get it back. I felt as if I had been robbed of something precious. It made me wonder what it must be like for people who begin to lose their memory, especially the most treasured memories of their loved ones.
A memorable Film informs an improbable clinical encounter
One of the most striking descriptions of memory loss in art has to be Christopher Nolan’s Memento. In the film the main character tries to compensate for his dramatic and specific deficit in short term memory by tattooing all over his body aide-memoire notes to himself as part of an obsessive and desperate search for the truth. I have encountered many patients with general memory loss in clinical practice but I did wonder if this dramatic failure of short term memory was just a fictional construct or if it could really happen. My question was recently answered when I came across someone with exactly the same deficit, brought on by a bout of encephalitis. She had suddenly become unable to form new memories whilst her past memories remained unaffected and her higher mental function was mostly intact. She continued to work out her puzzles but she could not retain any new information for more than a couple of minutes. She just could not understand why she couldn’t go home or why people weren’t telling her what was going on. The frustration and anger that this caused was already beginning to distort her normally placid and cheerful character. Apart from ‘locked in syndrome’, I can’t imagine too many conditions more terrible to develop. The ability to remember (and forget) is definitely something we take for granted.
Probably the most memorable book I will always struggle to remember clearly
This leads me in a roundabout way to some of the books I have read this summer. The first was the Gabriel Garcia Marquez classic ‘100 years of Solitude’ which begins with the memorable line “Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendía was to remember that distant afternoon when his father took him to discover ice.” The novel revolves around the Buendia family and the people of Macondo, who have been afflicted by a plague of insomnia whose side effect is a loss of memory. We read how the people in this imaginary village had to resort to labelling everyday objects and even write instructions on how to use them. In the words of Jacob Silverman, “Garcia Marquez, who has described himself as a professional of the memory, that awareness (i.e. of slippage of memory) must be especially piquant, both because his work is so predicated on notions of memory, history, and ancestry, and because neurological conditions run in his family.” There are many references to memory in his works, and when reading ‘100 years of Solitude’ I almost felt as if I was being transported into a world where I myself was losing my grip on reality and getting lost in an impossible jumble of characters. The thread of history gets tied into so many knots that it takes an effort to unravel it (including regular reference to the family tree, for instance). In spite of the use of magical realism, some of the insights from these books are now being reflected or confirmed by research. For instance, we now know how important sleep is in developing and shaping our memories. Garcia Marquez’ books are also strongly influenced by the author’s experiences and travels in the area of Columbia near the Magdelena river.
Probably the least likely but most memorable travel itinerary in the world
This novel was the inspiration for another book I read this summer: ‘The Robber of Memories’ by Michael Jacobs. Jacobs is another writer with a life long obsession with memory, not to mention his childhood interest in tales of the Spanish exploration of South America. In his own words “The older I got the more I appreciated the role of travel as a stimulus to memories, and the way in which journeys even to new places were somehow always awakening memories of places seen in an ever-receding past”. This book is an intensely personal travelogue/meditation but should be of interest to those of us who want to gain an insight into the experiences of patients or relatives with memory loss or dementia. ‘Escaping’ for some respite from his role of carer for his elderly mother with dementia, Jacobs embarked on a mission fraught with danger, following in the literary footsteps of his hero Garcia Marquez. Unusually, his journey was a quest to retrace his hero’s love affair with the Magdalena river, ignoring the threat of FARC guerilla attacks to make his way to the source of the river. The story begins with a meeting with the aged author, now himself in the lonely hinterland of early dementia. Garcia Marquez himself has had to let go of so many precious memories, but images of his beloved river had remained. His 81 year-old literary agent Balcells was quoted as saying of him: ‘Gabo carries a constant glare of nostalgia in his eyes’. That description would have fitted my patient to a tee.
Mingled through the narrative Jacobs reminisces about his parents’ loss of memory and frets with anxiety and guilt about having left his mother. A dread of what might happen to him if he was to follow his parents into the fog of dementia seems to be an undercurrent throughout. He re-reads ‘100 years of Solitude’ and finds evidence that the author may have had a premonition of what was going to happen to him. He meets Marcela, whose mother has Alzheimer’s disease. She tells him about the tales of the disappeared, about the days when two or three unidentified bodies floated down the river every day. In itself, this is a powerful metaphor for the brutal ravages of dementia, separating sufferers from their loved ones in a way that reopens old wounds and prevents them from getting closure for their grief. She said that her mother could still recall some of the trauma but she couldn’t recall where or when they had happened. Jacobs quizzes the locals about the local myth about a ‘robber of memories’ who would visit you in your sleep. It is almost as if he was challenging the robber in his own backyard!
As we are led slowly up the river Jacobs reveals his plan to visit the village of Yarumal, where so many of its inhabitants are struck down early in life with Alzheimer’s disease. The seemingly fanciful idea of a whole community being struck by a ‘plague’ of memory loss is actually based in the strange but real world of the Magdalena. He meets and talks to Fransciso Lopero, a leading researcher who has made the sudy of this unique tribe his life work. Genetic discoveries here have allowed susceptible people in this town to be identified so that in future potential treatments or vaccines can be tested in this group before they develop clinical symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.
Many seek for hope at the end of the rainbow: Jacobs sought hope at the source of the Magdelena. And after all, the best research is essentially an adventure into the unknown inspired by a passionate hope and anticipation of discovery. Sadly, Jacobs died from cancer earlier this year. At least he was spared a house call by the ‘robber of memories’.
The town of Yarumal and Alzheimer’s disease: Telegraph article by Michael Jacobs
Telegraph Obituary for Michael Jacobs
BBC Article (2011) about Francisco Lopera and his research in Yarumal
Selected quotes and memories of ‘Gabo’ – Huffington Post
More about Alzheimer’s disease from the Alzheimer’s Society